There are many types of metal in the periodic table and each of them has different categories in the table differently, The Royal Society of Chemistry writes that there are 94 metals on the periodic table. All the metals are classified into different categories according to their uniqueness, usage, color, and origin. Types of metals like copper, iron, steel, brass, gold, titanium, lead, and others.
Your requirements and needs of the project will determine the properties of the metal like melting point, strong point, and durability. Users also required the aesthetics, mass, ease of machining and repairing, temperature tolerance, thermal and electrical conductivity, and, stability, cost. In this article, we will discuss the types of metal, their properties, and their uses in construction.
What is Metal?
Metal is a natural compound of the earth’s crust that is present below the surface of the earth. Metals are opaque elements that are good conductors of heat and electricity. They are a combination of atomic materials like electrons, neutrons, and protons.
Many metals are shiny or lustrous and strong. 94 of the 118 elements on the periodic table are shown as metals. In other words, about 80% of the elements that we know of are some kind of metal. This metal is used for various purposes according to their quality and factors like cooking utensils, mobiles, cars, jewelry, etc.
Types of Metal
There are 94 metals listed according to their properties, uses, and uniqueness.
|Types of metal||Explanation||Examples||Properties||Uses|
|Ferrous Metals||Ferrous word is Latin which means iron. These metals contain iron.||Steel, Cast Iron, Wrought Iron, Molybdenum, Titanium, Vanadium, Silicon, Nickel, Manganese, Chromium,||High corrosion resistanceEasy to fabricate electrical ConductivityLow densityColourfulNon-magnetic||Shipping containers, industrial piping, cars, and domestic tools.|
|Non-Ferrous metal||Non-ferrous metals do not contain iron and they are softer.||Copper, Aluminium, Lead, Zinc||Aluminum, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, tin, zinc||Piping, gutters, roofing, outdoor signs, aircraft frames.|
|Common Metal||A combination of several metals like Aluminum, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, tin, and zinc are described as common metals.||Usually, fluorescentHigh Melting pointsHigh boiling pointsConductiveHigh magnetic||Lustrous, Malleable, Conductors of heat and electricity||Electric wires, coins, utensils, electronic devices, bridges, ships.|
|Rare Metals||There is a set of 17 metallic elements.||Cerium, Palladium, Rhodium, Scandium, Gadolinium, Europium||Usually, fluorescent high Melting points high boiling pointsConductiveHigh magnetic||Computers, flat panel televisions, light bulbs, electric cars, batteries of hybrid.|
|Heavy Metals||The metallic elements have a relatively high density compared to water and are called heavy metals.||Antimony, arsenic, cadmium, nickel, silver, vanadium, thallium, lead||DenseLustrousConductiveMalleableDuctile||Golf clubs, mobile phones, particles, accelerators, solar panels, plastics, mobile phones.|
|Light Metal||These metals are light metals that have low density.||Magnesium, aluminium, titanium||High strengthLow density||Land, sea space transportation, air.|
|Precious Metals.||These metals are rare and have a high economic value according to their factors||Gold, silver, platinum, palladium, iridium, osmium, rhodium.||High melting pointMore lustrous in appearanceLess reactive Softer||Jewellery, cars, engine bearings, solar technology, soldering, and brazing.|
Classification of Metals
There are two main classifications for metal: atomic structure and iron content.
Classification by iron content
Those metals that contain iron or do not contain iron. These metals have three main categories.
- Ferrous metal
- Non-Ferrous metal
- Metal Alloys
Classification by atomic structure
In the periodic table, metals are also classified on the basis of their atomic structure. These metals are further classified into groups that behave differently according to their nature.
- Alkali Metals
- Alkaline earth Metals
- Transition Metals
- Post-transition Metals
- Reactive non-metals
- Noble gases
- Unknown Properties
Explanation of Metals and their Uses for Construction & Home Improvement?
First of all, in the above, we discussed the metal classification that metals have different groups. Now we discuss in detail all the types of metal and their uses according to metal properties and construction needs.
Zinc is a cheap transition metal that is primarily extracted from ore containing zinc sulfide, zinc blende, or sphalerite. This metal is safe to make jewelry because it is lead-free and lead is the toxic substance that makes most jewelry unsafe to wear when you expose zinc alloy to air, it forms zinc carbonate and reacts with carbon dioxide.
Uses of Zinc Metal:
- Normally requires metal in batteries, brass, car bodies, security railing, and American pennies.
- Zinc provides the eco-friendly construction that is most suitable for construction in classical and modern architecture.
- Zinc is the most usable metal for roofing around the world in commercial buildings and period roof renovations.
- When exposed to fresh concrete zinc coating passivates very quickly which enhances the long-term corrosion protection over many years.
Steel is made of different elements of chemicals. The ratio of 99% iron and 1% carbon and most common usable metal in the world. The demand for steel increased day by day with the passage of time and the need for popularity.
|Types of Steel||Carbon Steel||Alloy Steel||Stainless Steel|
|Hardness of Steel||4.0 Mohs||60 Rockwell||120 Brinell|
Uses of Steel Metal:
- Steel is most widely used in the construction industry for many projects.
- People use steel in the construction industry due to the fact that it can produce an extremely sustainable structure that can be built quickly at low prices.
- You can be found in countless construction projects like coastal defences, metal homes, hospitals, stadiums, and security fencing.
- Constructing the building using steel is the most suitable metal and has many types of metal that are usable and affordable.
Cast iron is made of pig iron and to think about cast iron, a predominantly iron alloy must have over 2% carbon for the final alloy to be considered cast iron. This metal is not very expensive due to its basic alloying elements needs and the production process is low-cost.
|Types of Cast Iron||Ductile Cast Iron||Gray Cast Iron||White Cast Iron||Malleable Cast Iron|
Uses of Cast Metal:
- Cast iron is typically used in large architectural products but cast iron is not a good structural material for handling or bending moments.
- It is mostly used in the pipes, machines, and automotive industry parts.
- It is also used for repairing historical buildings.
- Cast iron is typically used for stairs, columns, railings, and lampposts.
Tin is a soft silvery white metal with a bluish tinge that results from the mineral cassiterite and is used as an alloying element to make things like solder and glass. It is a base metal that is commonly blended with other metals to create alloys but common tin alloys include bronze and pewter.
Uses of Tin Metal:
- Tin softness is used for architectural projects.
- Tin is used to create custom walls and ceilings for a completely unique interior look and feel.
- Mostly tin is used for protective coating with a combination of other metals.
- Tin is mostly used for glass production, coating for steel containers, and other chemical uses.
- Normally used in buildings for connecting pipes and electrical circuits.
Types of metal used for home improvement
Copper is a soft chemical metal that comes only to silver and is malleable and ductile with a reddish-brown appearance. This metal is valuable as the conductor of electricity and heat. It is used extensively for wire, coins, and household utensils.
Uses of Copper Metal:
- The roofs of the buildings are made of pure copper for its unique look which is durable and designed to withstand severe weather.
- Copper metal is also mostly used in the knobs and hinges on your doors, similarly railings and trims on your stairways.
- The sheets of copper is used for covering the surface in the kitchen and bathroom.
Minerals and an element are both necessary for day-to-day living. Due to its great ductility, thermal and electrical conductivity, corrosion resistance, and malleability, it is a significant industrial metal.
In American English, this element is known as aluminum but in British English known as aluminium. Aluminium is a soft silvery-white lightweight metal that is a combination of aluminium oxide mixed with some other minerals. In the world, this is one of the lightest metals.
Uses of Aluminium Metal:
- This metal is especially used for construction applications.
- Products like cans, foils, kitchens, utensils, and beer kegs are also using aluminum metal due to their durability.
- The home window frames, roofing, walls, railings, and shelves are designed using aluminum metal in addition to well-designed and financial criteria, visual and design attention together with natural demands placed on building projects that present the great look of the building.
A large portion of the steel produced today is plain carbon steel which is the most important group of engineering. Carbon steel belongs to the chain of alloy carbon. It contains more than 1.65% MN and 1% carbon. Moreover, it has all the elements with specific quantities for residua and deoxidizing quantities for further elements.
Uses of Carbon Steel Metal:
- For building frames, low-carbon steel is a metal of high quality in commercial, government, and housing buildings.
- The metal is also used in the garages.
- Buildings made using steel are safer from natural calamities like earthquakes and tornadoes than using other materials.
Each metal has its own factors and specifications that are required according to its needs, durability, and properties. These metal products are mostly used in our daily lives that become an important part of our lives. Metal is available in chemical elements like iron, molecular compounds like polymeric sulfur nitride, and an alloy like stainless steel.
The metal industry has grown so big day by day for many thousands of years. For any product, metal varies in their quality and that’s mainly due to the fact that they are designed and manufactured by different companies.
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