Sand is a vital building material that is produced by the decomposition of rocks and can be discovered in large quantities in nature. However, the density of sand is not always the same and there is no constant density. Therefore, you can find out by utilizing the internet calculator or formula.
The composition, moisture content, and particle size are some of the components that affect sand density. Additionally, the density of sand is determined by whether it is packed, moist, or dry. We’ll talk about the many forms of sand, how to compute density and the density of sand in kg/m3.
What is sand?
The term sand is used for rock particles that range in grain size from 1/16(i.e 0.0625mm) to 2mm. The main composition of sand is oxides of silica (Si02) and the mineralogical is QUARTZ. However, sand is obtained as a breakdown of rocks like Quartzite, granite, and Sandstone by the natural process of weathering and erosion.
How to Classify the sand?
The sand is typically classified into 3 categories.
- Fine sand: The sand that is passing through a sieve with an opening of 1.5875 is called fine sand. This sand is mainly used for plastering works.
- Coarse sand: The sand that passes through a sieve with an opening of 3.175mm is called coarse sand. This sand is used in preparing mortar for masonry works.
- Gravelly sand: The sand that passes through a sieve with an opening of 7.62 mm is called gravelly sand. This sand is used for concrete work.
|0.075 mm – 0.425 mm
|0.425 mm – 2.0 mm
|2.0 mm – 4.75 mm
What are the types of sand that are used in construction?
The sand types are classified into different categories according to size, shape, color, structure, texture, and location. However, you know that there is no unique classification of the sand. Now, we use sand that is especially used in construction.
- Obtain from riverbeds or riverbanks
- Fine particle sand
- Naturally occurring
- Smoother in texture and well-rounded
- The color of river sand is whitish-gray
- Cheaper to buy
- Bond with cement, aggregates, and water to form concrete
- Made up of crushed concrete particles
- Consists of fine particles
- Suited to combinations of concrete
- Coarse texture to improve bonding.
- Used in construction to enhance durability
- cleaned to a particular particle size.
- Naturally occurred
- Obtained from the pits at a depth of 2 to 4 meters on the ground
- Need to remove the unwanted particles before usage.
- Color is red-orange
- Used for mortars
- Cost-effective for construction projects
M – Sand or Artificial Sand:
- Short name for manufactured sand
- Manufactured in the factory
- Free of impurities and unwanted particles
- Better quality of material
- Uniform particle size
- Customizable for project needs
- Used for filling in building construction
- Mixture of fine particles of sand and aggregates
- Particle size is relatively large
- Used to fill trenches, depressions, or areas with uneven surfaces
- Typically, gritty and coarse in texture
- Manufactured from high-quality industrial quartz
- Made of natural minerals
- Mixed particle sizes
- Contain some impurities
- used for pipe bedding and leveling
- Affordable for several project requirements.
What is the sand density?
The sand density depends on the conditions of the sand that it is wet, dry, or packed. However, the sand density varies between 1450 – 2082 kg/m³. Typically, the density shows the specific weight of the material.
|Mass per unit volume (kg/m3 or lb/ft3).
|Earth’s gravity is around 9.81 m/s2.
|Units for Density
|kg/m3 , lb/ft3 , g/cm3 and kN/m3
|Divide mass by volume
|Earth’s Gravity Impact
|Influences weight and density measurements
How to calculate the sand density?
To calculate the density of the sand you have to follow several steps.
- Obtain mass (kg or lb)
- Obtain volume (m³ or ft³)
- First of all, identify the type of sand as well as the minerals that are present in the sand like basalt, quartz, gypsum, olivine, or silica.
- Identify the nature of the sand.
- Find the proportion of every component in a single unit of sand.
- Calculate the mass densities of each material.
- Mass = Volumetric Percentage × Volume × Mass Density.
- Add all material’s mass to obtain the total mass.
- Unit Weight = Total Mass / Volume of one unit of sand.
Mass= 2000 kg and the
Volume= 1 m³
Unit Weight = 2000 kg / 1 m³
= 2000 kg/m³
Density according to the type of sand:
|Type of sand
|Sand density kg/m3
|Untouched and naturally compacted sand
|Moist with water
|Wet packed sand
|Compressed and nearly saturated with water
|Dry and disturbed from its natural packing process
|Manufactured and mechanically compressed
|Crushed rock and Manufactured
|Natural occurring from riverbeds
Density of Sand Based on Extraction:
|Type of sand
|Sand Density in Kg/m³
|Career Sand Normal
|River Alluvial Sand
|Construction Sand Normal
|Construction Sand Loose
|Career Sand Fine-Grained, Seedy Dry
What is the density of sand in kg/m3?
The common bulk density of sand in normal-weight concrete is 1520-1680 kg/m³ (95-105 lb/ft³).
Bulking of sand:
When dry sand comes in contact with moisture, a thin film is formed around the particles, which causes them to get apart from each other, which results in increasing the volume of sand. This expansion is known as sand bulking.
As sand is the main component in engineering, understanding the bulking of sand is more important. Since its proportion will be affected depending upon the state of sand in mortars and plastic i.e. wet sand or dry sand.
A higher bulking rate is observed in fine sand particles ( 0.25mm to 0.15mm) as compared to Coarse sand particles. Bulking is 30% of the original dry volume of fine sand and 15% in coarse sand.
Formula for bulk density:
Bulk Density of sand = Mass of sand/volume
- Bulk density=Mass, if the volume is a unit.
- Standard Test Method: ASTM C 29 (AASHTO T 19) is the standard method for determining sand bulk density.
- Unit= kg/m³ or lb/ft³.
- The volume measures both the sand and the voids that are present in the sand materials.
Bulking Of sand Graph:
Frequently Asked Questions:
Q. What is the bulk density of sand and clay in gm cc?
- Bulk density of Sand: Up to 1.8 gm/cc
- Bulk density of Clays: 1 gm/cc
Q. How do you find the dry density of sand?
You can calculate the Dry density by using the formula.
Dry density (pcf)= Wet Density (pcf) – Moisture Content (PCF)
Q. How much kg is 1 unit of sand?
There is a total of 0.3865 kg in one unit of river sand.
Q. What is the specific density of crushed sand?
Having a specific surface area of 310 m2/kg, crush sand density is 2,857 kg/m3.
Sand’s density is a basic feature that impacts how it behaves in engineering, construction, and various other applications. Sand occurs in a wide range of conditions and compositions, which are reflected in the density values. Sand density is an essential consideration in material science and geotechnical engineering since it can affect project sustainability and success. As such, it must be understood and maintained.